IMR Press / RCM / Volume 22 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2203071
Open Access Review
Long-term management of Takotsubo syndrome: a not-so-benign condition
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1 Cardiology, Clinical and Molecular Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00189 Rome, Italy
2 Institute of Cardiology, Madre Giuseppina Vannini Hospital, 00100 Rome, Italy

Academic Editor: Leonardo De Luca

Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2021, 22(3), 597–611;
Submitted: 30 June 2021 | Revised: 27 August 2021 | Accepted: 30 August 2021 | Published: 24 September 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an intriguing clinical entity, characterized by usually transient and reversible abnormalities of the left ventricular systolic function, mimicking the myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries. TTS was initially regarded as a benign condition, however recent studies have unveiled adverse outcomes in the short- and long-term, with rates of morbidity and mortality comparable to those experienced after an acute myocardial infarction. Given the usual transient nature of TTS, this is an unexpected finding. Moreover, long-term mortality seems to be mainly driven by non-cardiovascular causes. The uncertain long-term prognosis of TTS warrants a comprehensive outpatient follow-up after the acute event, although there are currently no robust data indicating its modality and timing. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent available evidence regarding long-term prognosis in TTS. Moreover methods, timing and findings of the long-term management of TTS will be discussed.

Takotsubo syndrome
Long-term management
Fig. 1.
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