IMR Press / RCM / Volume 22 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2203068
Open Access Review
Cardionephrology and cardiorenal disease in Italy: state of the art
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1 Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, L. Parodi – Delfino Hospital, 00034 Colleferro, Italy
2 Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, 6978 Lugano, Switzerland
3 International Renal Research Institute, S. Bortolo Hospital, 36100 Vicenza, Italy
Academic Editor: Peter A. McCullough
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2021, 22(3), 563–572;
Submitted: 6 July 2021 | Revised: 11 August 2021 | Accepted: 12 August 2021 | Published: 24 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Cardiovascular Medicine 2021)

The interactions and feedback mechanisms involved in heart and renal failure are more complex than previously thought and are grouped under the term “cardio-renal axis”. In the last decades, it has always been emphasized that renal dysfunction in patients with heart failure can be attributed exclusively to low renal plasma flow resulting from reduced cardiac output. In the last two decades cardiorenal syndrome has been established to set complex and close interactions between heart and kidney. Cardiologists and nephrologist should interact in their daily clinical practice to provide better patients’ management. In this review, we will point out main features of cardiorenal axis and cardiorenal syndrome to shift into specific sets of management in Italy starting by Guyton’s hypothesis till present days.

Cardiorenal syndrome
Heart failure
Acute kidney injury
Chronic kidney disease
Fig. 1.
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