IMR Press / RCM / Volume 22 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2202046
Open Access Review
Chronic disease management in heart failure: focus on telemedicine and remote monitoring
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1 Section of Heart Failure & Transplantation, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
2 Department of Clinical Therapeutics, National Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15771 Attica, Greece
3 Department of Nursing, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
4 Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52246, USA
*Correspondence: (Paulino Alvarez)
Academic Editor: Peter A. McCullough
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2021, 22(2), 403–413;
Submitted: 8 April 2021 | Revised: 28 April 2021 | Accepted: 25 May 2021 | Published: 30 June 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, many barriers to telemedicine disappeared. Virtual visits and telemonitoring strategies became routine. Evidence is accumulating regarding the safety and efficacy of virtual visits to replace in-person visits. A structured approach to virtual encounters is recommended. Telemonitoring includes patient reported remote vital sign monitoring, information from wearable devices, cardiac implantable electronic devices and invasive remote hemodynamic monitoring. The intensity of the monitoring should match the risk profile of the patient. Attention to cultural and educational barriers is important to prevent disparities in telehealth implementation.

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
Fig. 1.
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