Effect of Ginkgolide B (GB) on A-induced
cytotoxicity in N2a neuroblastoma cells. (a) The TEM images of A
oligomers via negative staining. (b) N2a cells were treated with 0, 2.5, 5, 10
and 20 M A oligomers for 24 h, and the cell survival rates
were then measured by MTT assay (n = 5). (c) The chemical structure of GB. (d)
Cells were treated with GB at various concentrations (0, 20, 40, 100 and 200
M) for 24 h, and the cell viability was measured by MTT assay (n = 5). (e)
Cells were pretreated with various concentrations of GB (0, 20, 40, 100 and 200
M) for 2 h, followed by incubation with 10 M A
oligomers for another 24 h. Cell survival rates were measured by MTT assay (n =
5). (f) Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) (n = 3).
(g) The number of apoptotic cells in the existence of A oligomers
and GB analyzed by flow cytometry. Quantified apoptotic cells in all groups (n =
3). Data were presented as mean SEM. **p 0.01 and
***p 0.001 vs. control group; ##p 0.01 and
###p 0.001 vs. A group.