Academic Editors: Jesús Pastor and Min Zhou
Background: Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by motor and vocal tics. While Comprehensive Behavioural Intervention for Tics (CBIT) is an effective, non-pharmacological treatment for patients with GTS, the underlying neurophysiological basis of this intervention has not been investigated. Methods: To investigate the clinical effectiveness of CBIT in reducing tic severity in young people with GTS and explore neurophysiological mechanisms associated with clinical change. Results: There was a significant overall improvement in tic severity of large effect size. The Cortical Silent Period (CSP) to motor evoked potential (MEP) ratio (CSP/MEP ratio) increased after the intervention with a small effect size. Other neurophysiological measures of inhibition were not significantly related to the change in tic severity. Conclusions: Alongside significant clinical improvements, these results suggest a role for motor cortical Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory circuitry in the neurophysiological changes underlying CBIT treatment. These findings need to be replicated in larger studies using control samples.