Jack A. Tuszynski. Quantum paradigms in psychopathology: multiscale investigations from biomolecular qubits to the brain, and its pathological states. J. Integr. Neurosci.2021, 20(4), 1111–1114.
Spatiotemporal hierarchy of the brain’s complex dynamical
organization spans multiple scales. The brain’s cognitive hierarchy includes
five or more layers across at least 12 orders of magnitude, from large (nearly
brain-wide, ~10 cm), relatively slow (10 Hz) processes
based on neuronal membranes and synaptic network processes, downward and inward
to increasingly smaller and faster molecular scales inside neurons, including the
kilohertz (10) to petahertz (10) dynamics of cytoskeletal filaments,
mitochondrial reticula, and their constituents at nanometer and sub-nanometer
length scales. Adapted from .
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