IMR Press / FBL / Volume 19 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/4198

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Embelin suppresses pancreatic cancer growth by modulating tumor immune microenvironment
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1 Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, Texas 75708, USA
2 Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, and Medicine, The University of Kansas Cancer Center, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
3 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Kansas Cancer Center, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
Academic Editor:Subrata Haldar
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2014, 19(1), 113–125; https://doi.org/10.2741/4198
Published: 1 January 2014
Abstract

Since pancreatic carcinoma is largely refractory to conventional therapies, development of novel agents is required for the effective treatment of pancreatic cancer. The objective of this paper was to examine the molecular mechanisms by which embelin inhibited human pancreatic cancer growth in mice by modulating tumor immune microenvironment. Embelin inhibited PANC-1 tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis which were associated with suppression of Akt and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathways. Embelin inhibited the expression of Bcl-2, cyclin D1, CDK2 and CDK6, IL-6 and IL-8, and induced the expression of Bax in tumor tissues. Embelin also reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition by up-regulating E-cadherin and inhibiting the expression of Snail, Slug and Zeb1. Embelin inhibited pancreatic cancer growth in KrasG12D mice by modulating tumor immune microenvironment where CTL, NKT, γδT, NK, and IFNγ (Th1 type) cells were up-regulated, and Th17, PMN-MDSC, IL-6 and IL-8 (Th2 type) immune cells were inhibited. These data suggest that embelin can inhibit pancreatic cancer growth by modulating tumor immune microenvironment and Akt and Shh pathways, and inhibiting inflammation. Embelin may offer therapeutic benefits for the treatment and/or prevention of pancreatic cancer.

Keywords
Pancreatic Cancer
Embelin
Akt
Sonic Hedgehog
KrasG12D mice
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