IMR Press / FBL / Volume 19 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/4199

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review
Scaffolds for islets and stem cells differentiated into insulin-secreting cells
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1 Materials Science and Engineering, Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization, Sydney, Australia
2 former Diabetes Transplant Unit, Prince of Wales Hospital and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
3 Neurogenetics Research Laboratory, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia
4 Oncology Research Unit, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, Australia
Academic Editors:Patrick Vermette, Jonathan Lakey, Rennian Wang, Steven Paraskevas
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2014, 19(1), 126–138; https://doi.org/10.2741/4199
Published: 1 January 2014
Abstract

Embryonic/pluripotent stem cells offer the possibility of an unlimited source of cells to be differentiated into beta cells. This requires differentiating the stem cells into pancreatic progenitors by tissue culture, and then transplanting into recipients for the final stages of development into mature beta-cells. Exposing embryonic stem cells seeded onto laminin coated PLGA scaffolds to biochemical cues resulted in enhanced expression of definitive endoderm markers compared to those differentiated on 2D monolayers. The production of tissue specific cells from stem cells can be scaled up using bioreactor cultures. To apply human stem cell derived islet progenitors in a clinical setting, one must first overcome the problem of immune rejection. Immuno-isolating the cells using microencapsulation provides one possible solution. Coating scaffolds with an anti-inflammatory agent could be an effective means of reducing the inflammatory process that results in pericapsular fibrosis and necrosis of the encapsulated cells. This review summarizes the above issues and describes how 3D scaffolds seeded with stem cells and/or pancreatic progenitors may provide a benefit to achieving normalization of blood glucose levels.

Keywords
Diabetes
Stem cells
Tissue Engineering
Biodegradable Scaffolds
Differentiation
Review
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