IMR Press / FBL / Volume 10 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/1521

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
The immune system in aging: roles of cytokines, T cells and NK cells
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1 Center for Demographic Studies, Duke University, 2117 Campus Drive Box 90408, Durham, NC 27708, USA. hhai@cds.duke.edu <hhai@cds.duke.edu>
Academic Editor:Kenneth Manton
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2005, 10(1), 192–215; https://doi.org/10.2741/1521
Published: 1 January 2005
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-demographic effects of genome-proteome interactions)
Abstract

Aging is characterized by a proinflammatory state that contributes to the onset of disability and age-related diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines play a central role in mediating cellular and physiological responses. The levels of these cytokines may reflect immune system effectiveness. Studies of the effects of aging on inflammatory response show interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) to be important. In this review, age-related changes in inflammatory cytokines, T and NK cells, and the biology of IL-6 and TNF-alpha and their relevance to senescence are considered.

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