IMR Press / FBL / Volume 10 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/1521

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

The immune system in aging: roles of cytokines, T cells and NK cells
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1 Center for Demographic Studies, Duke University, 2117 Campus Drive Box 90408, Durham, NC 27708, USA
2 Thurston Arthritis Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3330 Thurston Building CB# 7280, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7280
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2005, 10(1), 192–215;
Published: 1 January 2005

Aging is characterized by a proinflammatory state that contributes to the onset of disability and age-related diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines play a central role in mediating cellular and physiological responses. The levels of these cytokines may reflect immune system effectiveness. Studies of the effects of aging on inflammatory response show interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin–1beta (IL-1beta) to be important. In this review, age-related changes in inflammatory cytokines, T and NK cells, and the biology of IL-6 and TNF-alpha and their relevance to senescence are considered.

Inflammatory Cytokines
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
TNF- a
T cells
NK cells
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