IMR Press / CEOG / Volume 49 / Issue 8 / DOI: 10.31083/j.ceog4908169
Open Access Review
Aerobic Vaginitis: is Enterococcus faecalis Another Risk Factor in the Progression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia to Cervical Cancer—Literature Review
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1 Gynecological Center, Dr Mahira Jahić, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2 School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, 75 000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
3 Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, General Hospital Tešanj, 74260 Tešanj, Bosnia and Herzegovina
*Correspondence: (Mahira Jahić); (Anis Cerovac)
Academic Editor: Katarzyna Plagens-Rotman
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2022, 49(8), 169;
Submitted: 20 December 2021 | Revised: 28 February 2022 | Accepted: 2 March 2022 | Published: 19 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sexually transmitted diseases: challenges for the 21st century)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Objective: The aim of our review article is to show Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) as a risk factor of cervical cancer. Mechanism: Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is the absence of a balance of vaginal flora containing aerobic and intestinal pathogens, varying degrees of vaginal inflammation and immature epithelial cells. The causes of AV responsible for inflammatory changes are: E. faecalis, Esherichia coli, group B streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. The pathogenic effect of aerobic microorganisms such as E. faecalis shows that it causes spontaneous abortion, premature birth, puerperal sepsis, abscesses, and urinary tract infections. Findings in Brief: AV caused by E. faecalis is more common in low-grade and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) than in women with a normal Pap test and is thought to contribute to the progression of cervical cancer. E. faecalis produces hydrogen superoxide which causes chromosomal instability in intestinal epithelial cell infection, which is considered a key factor in the carcinogenic process. The presence of the Human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 gene and genome in E. faecalis in cervical cancer biopsy material leads to a specific link that may be a risk factor in the progression of CIN toward cancer. The presence of HPV in this bacteria can lead to persistent HPV infection, CIN development and progression to cervical cancer. Conclusions: Increased vaginal pH, lactobacilli deficiency, and the ability of E. faecalis to contain HPV-16 in episomal form in E. faecalis-induced AV could be key promoters of persistence and proliferation of cervical HPV as a risk factor in development of CIN and cervical cancer.

aerobic vaginitis
E. faecalis
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
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