Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Phytoplasmas cannot be cultivated in vitro, and remain the most poorly understood plant pathogens. Despite this limitation, the investigation of their nature with the aid of modern tools has produced noteworthy results during the last 20 years. Using biochemical and molecular approaches, the phylogeny of the phytoplasmas has been described, their chromosomal and extrachromosomal components are being studied, and information on the localization, movement, and metabolic interference occurring in their insect and plant hosts accumulated. At the same time, the application of the new findings in phylogeny and genetics has aided the development of powerful diagnostic tools that have improved the ability to manage diseases which are induced by phytoplasmas.