Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Fully grown mammalian oocytes resume meiosis as a consequence of rises in gonadotropin levels at the mid-cycle. The increase of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in cumulus cells are required for gonadotropins-induced meiotic resumption of oocytes. The various actions of cAMP activated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) also include meiosis activating sterol (MAS), gonadal steroid hormones and epidermal growth factor (EGF) network during meiotic resumption. Another second messenger guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) induced by nitric oxide (NO) or atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) also mediates gonadotropins-controlled mammalian oocyte meiotic resumption. The different actions of FSH and LH on meiotic resumption are discussed. We hope to provide a framework to understand how the initial signals generated by gonadotropins-stimulation control the expression of genes required for meiotic resumption.