Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Academic Editor: Ernst Niggli
Thanks to deep tissue penetration of infrared light (IR), two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM) has become an important tool in modern neuroscience. Examples range from the high-resolution visualization of dendritic spines in single neurons to the monitoring of intracellular Ca++ transients in small neural networks. In the present review we give an overview of the current achievements and discuss emerging applications of the technique.