IMR Press / FBL / Volume 10 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/1529

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

S100A10, annexin A2, and annexin a2 heterotetramer as candidate plasminogen receptors
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1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2005, 10(1), 300–325;
Published: 1 January 2005

The defining characteristic of a tumor cell is its ability to escape the constraints imposed by neighboring cells, invade the surrounding tissue and metastasize to distant sites. This invasive property of tumor cells is dependent on activation of proteinases at the cell surface. The serine proteinase plasmin is one of the key proteinases that participate in the pericellular proteolysis associated with the invasive program of tumor cells. The assembly of plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator at the endothelial cell surface or on the fibrin clot provides a focal point for plasmin generation and therefore plays an important role in maintaining blood fluidity and promoting fibrinolysis. S100A10, a member of the S100 family of Ca2+-binding proteins, is a dimeric protein composed of two 11 kDa subunits. Typically, S100A10 is found in most cells bound to its annexin A2 ligand as the heterotetrameric (S100A10)2(annexin A2)2 complex, AIIt. In addition to an intracellular distribution, S100A10 is present on the extracellular surface of many cells. The carboxyl-terminal lysines of S100A10 bind tPA and plasminogen resulting in the stimulation of tPA-dependent plasmin production. Carboxypeptidases cleave the carboxyl-terminal lysines of S100A10, resulting in a loss of binding and activity. Plasmin binds to S100A10 at a distinct site and the formation of the S100A10-plasmin complex stimulates plasmin autoproteolysis thereby providing a highly localized transient pulse of plasmin activity at the cell surface. The binding of tPA and plasmin to S100A10 also protects against inhibition by physiological inhibitors, PAI-1 and alpha2-antiplasmin, respectively. S100A10 also colocalizes plasminogen with the uPA-uPAR complex thereby localizing and stimulating uPA-dependent plasmin formation to the surface of cancer cells. The loss of S100A10 from the extracellular surface of cancer cells results in a significant loss in plasmin generation. In addition, S100A10 knock-down cells demonstrate a dramatic loss in extracellular matrix degradation and invasiveness as well as reduced metastasis. Annexin A2 plays an important role in plasminogen regulation by controlling the levels of extracellular S100A10 and by acting as a plasmin reductase. The mechanism by which annexin A2 regulates the extracellular levels of S100A10 is unknown. This review highlights the important part that S100A10 plays in plasmin regulation and the role this protein plays in cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis.

Annexin A2
Annexin A2 heterotetramer
Pericellular proteolysis
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