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Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine (RCM) is published by IMR Press from Volume 19 Issue 1 (2018). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with MedReviews, LLC.
Open Access Review
Current Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Renal Artery Stenosis
1 Section of Cardiology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2004, 5(4), 204–215;
Published: 30 December 2004
Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a common condition associated with hypertension and renal insufficiency. The high prevalence of RAS patients with coronary and lower extremity vascular disease has been well established. Fibromuscular dysplasia in young females and atherosclerosis in patients over the age of 55 are the most common causes. Poorly controlled hypertension refractory to medical therapy, worsening of renal function, and flash pulmonary edema may point to underlying RAS. Duplex ultrasonography and magnetic resonance angiography have largely replaced captopril scanning for RAS screening. However, renal angiography still remains the gold standard to diagnose RAS. Treatment options include medical therapy, angioplasty, and surgery. In general, patients with a stenosis greater than 50%, a translesional systolic pressure gradient greater than 15 mm Hg, and difficult-to-control hypertension and/or worsening renal insufficiency are candidates for renal revascularization. Percutaneous transluminal revascularization has evolved to become the preferred revascularization therapy because it is a less invasive and more cost-effective alternative to surgery and is associated with high technical success, as well as a low complication rate. The natural history of RAS is to progress over time, leading to renal artery occlusion, loss of renal mass, worsening of renal function, and, ultimately, end-stage renal disease. It is therefore important to aggressively screen, recognize, and treat the entity early in its course.
Renal artery disease