†These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Konstantinos P. Letsas
Cardiac simulation has moved from early life-saving pacemakers meant only to prevent asystole to current devices capable of physiologic stimulation for the treatment of heart rhythm and heart failure, that are also intended for remote patient and disease-progression monitoring. The actual vision of contemporary pacing aims to correct the electrophysiologic roots of mechanical inefficiency regardless of underlying structural heart diseases. The awareness of the residual cardiac dyssynchrony related to customary cardiac pacing has changed the concept of what truly represents “physiologic pacing”. On a different perspective, leadless stimulation to abolish CIED surgery and prevent lead-related complications is becoming a priority both for young device recipients and for frail, elderly patients. Careful clinical evaluation attempts to bridge decision-making to patient-tailored therapy.