IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2301028
Open Access Systematic Review
Epidemiology, risk factors and prognosis of cardiovascular disease in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic era: a systematic review
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1 Physiotherapy Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, 35100 Lamia, Greece
2 Department of Rehabilitation, University Hospital Brno, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic
3 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University Brno, 60177 Brno, Czech Republic
4 Clinic of Cardiology and Angiology, Acibadem City Clinic Cardiovascular Center, 1407 Sofia, Bulgaria
5 Department of Medical Imaging, Allergology & Physiotherapy, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University of Plovdiv, 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
6 Department of Kinesitherapy, Faculty of Public Health “Prof. Dr. Tzecomir Vodenicharov, Ph.D”, Medical University of Sofia, 1431 Sofia, Bulgaria
*Correspondence: (Ladislav Batalik)
Academic Editor: Peter A. McCullough
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(1), 28;
Submitted: 26 September 2021 | Revised: 24 November 2021 | Accepted: 6 December 2021 | Published: 17 January 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from China, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than five milion deaths worldwide. Several studies have elucidated the role of risk factors in the prognosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the progression of COVID-19 pandemic. This systematic review assesses the link between COVID-19 and cardiovascular risk factors, and investigates the prognosis in the case of myocardial injury. Methods: A literature search was performed to identify relevant articles in Pubmed, MEDLINE, Elsevier, and Google Scholar the last two years using the terms: COVID-19, CVD, risk factors, cardiovascular risk factors, SARS-CoV-2, lockdown, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Exclusion criteria were the studies associated with pediatric and pregnant COVID-19 patients. Results: After screening through 3071 articles, 10 studies were included in this review that captured the findings from 3912 participants. Included studies found that preexisting CVD was linked to worse outcomes and increased risk of death in patients with COVID-19, whereas COVID-19 itself also induced myocardial injury, arrhythmia, acute coronary syndrome, and venous thromboembolism. Conclusions: Cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity were associated with intensive care unit admission and poor prognosis. Cardiovascular risk factors are crucial for the progression of COVID-19, and infected patients should be constantly monitored and follow strict hygiene and decrease their social interactions.

Cardiovascular disease
Coronavirus disease pandemic
Risk factors
Cardiovascular risk factors
Systematic review
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