IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2301017
Open Access Review
Dietary patterns, dietary nutrients and cardiovascular disease
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1 Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, 3004 Melbourne, VIC, Australia
2 Discipline of Internal Medicine, Medical School, University of Western Australia, 6000 Perth, WA, Australia
*Correspondence: (Trevor A. Mori)
Academic Editors: Demosthenes B Panagiotakos and Matina Kouvari
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(1), 17;
Submitted: 14 October 2021 | Revised: 26 November 2021 | Accepted: 29 November 2021 | Published: 14 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, nutrients and cardiovascular disease prevention)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

A healthy dietary pattern can benefit multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. In conjunction with current standard-of-care pharmaceutical interventions it can provide an effective strategy for the prevention of CVD. Previous dietary recommendations have focused on targeting macronutrients. However, most of the recent international dietary guidelines now recommend a whole food, dietary pattern approach, whilst avoiding quantitative nutrient advice. The guidelines recommend: (1) increased intake of plant-based foods including complex, fibre-rich carbohydrates such as wholegrains, fruits and vegetables, but restricting the intake of refined starches; (2) substituting saturated fats with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated oils; (3) reducing salt intake; (4) increased fish consumption (or fish oils where applicable); (5) reducing sugar-sweetened drinks and added sugars; (6) avoiding butter and cream particularly in individuals at increased risk of CVD, but encouraging fermented products such as yoghurt; there is no specific advice on cheese and milk; (7) allowing consumption of lean meat in moderation but restricting processed meats; and (8) reducing cholesterol intake and foods rich in cholesterol (e.g., eggs and crustaceans) for those with diabetes and at increased CVD risk. The dietary guidelines should be adhered to in conjunction with low-to-moderate alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, avoiding tobacco and maintaining a healthy weight. This review summarises recently published research, international guidelines and position statements for minimizing CVD risk.

Dietary patterns
Dietary recommendations
Cardiovascular risk
Type 2 diabetes
Plant based foods
Dietary fats
Fibre and sugar
Dairy foods
Meat consumption
Salt intake
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