IMR Press / JOMH / Volume 18 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1803076
Open Access Original Research
The influence of intermittent apnea on aortic hemodynamics in healthy young men
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1 Research Institute for Industrial Technology Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, 470-0392 Aichi, Japan
2 Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, Dallas, TX 75231, USA
3 Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
4 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe-Shi, 350-8585 Saitama, Japan
5 Human Informatics and Interaction Research Institute National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 305-8566 Ibaraki, Japan
*Correspondence: (Jun Sugawara)
J. Mens. Health 2022, 18(3), 76;
Submitted: 1 September 2021 | Accepted: 19 November 2021 | Published: 2 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle modifications for men with hypertension)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Sleep apnea is known as a high-risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD); However, the influence of apnea on aortic blood pressure and augmentation index (AIx), which cardiac load and independent risks for a future CVD event, remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the influence of intermittent normoxic apnea on aortic arterial hemodynamics in healthy men. Methods: Sixteen healthy young men (23 ± 1.6 years mean ± SD) underwent the repetitive 20-s apnea with a 40 s interval for 20 min. During the interval, each subject maintained a breath pace at 15 breaths/min. Central hemodynamics were evaluated every 5 min by pulse wave analysis from peripheral (radial) arterial pressure waveforms via general transfer function method and compared among three phases defined as “breath” (for 20 s before apnea), “apnea”, and “rebreathe” (for 20 s after apnea). The baseline values were calculated from the first breathing cycle and compared with each breathing phase every 5 min. Results: Aortic systolic blood pressure and AIx were significantly higher at rebreathe phase than the other phases. Likewise, heart rate and double product (aortic systolic blood pressure × heart rate) were significantly higher in rebreathe phase than the other phases. Conclusions: These results suggest that cardiac load is increased by intermittent normoxic apnea, especially during the rebreathing phase.

Intermittent apnea
Aortic pressure
Augmentation index
Fig. 1.
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