IMR Press / JOMH / Volume 18 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1803073
Open Access Review
Epidemiology of lung cancer and the gender differences in risk
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1 Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
*Correspondence: (Wickii T. Vigneswaran)
J. Mens. Health 2022, 18(3), 73;
Submitted: 30 November 2021 | Revised: 5 January 2022 | Accepted: 17 January 2022 | Published: 2 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lung Cancer: The Changing Paradigm)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Lung cancer has progressed from an exceedingly rare disease to the leading cause of all cancer-related deaths, a phenomenon largely attributed to the impact of tobacco smoking and resulting global epidemic. Methods: A thorough literature search was conducted to identify relevant factors in the epidemiology of lung cancer with a focus on recent studies and developments that had the most significant impact on the current understanding of lung cancer. Results: Most recent data suggests the global burden of lung cancer is continuing to rise with 2.2 million new cases in 2020 alone. Although no difference is noted among men, a higher rate of lung cancer deaths among women in the industrialized countries are observed compared to developing nations. Incidence and deaths are closely linked to cigarette smoking. Other risk factors include occupational hazards, increasing air pollution with pulmonary infectious diseases and inflammatory conditions, and genetic factors. Tobacco continues to cause approximately 90% of all lung cancer deaths with a markedly wide variety of incidence rates both geographically and between males and females. Lung cancer incidence has been falling in US and UK since 1990 largely due to comprehensive tobacco control programs. In contrast higher rates of cigarette smoking among emerging nations is a concern. The unprecedented, widespread adoption of electronic-cigarette use among adolescents may pose major obstacles in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer. Conclusions: While the vast majority of current lung cancer cases and deaths continue to be caused by tobacco consumption, shifts in population behaviors, geographical location, and potential new causes may alter this distribution. Further work is crucial in order to better understand the risk factors for lung cancer in the modern world so that a more holistic proactive approach, rather than a reactive approach, can be taken.

lung cancer
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