IMR Press / JOMH / Volume 17 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.040
Open Access Mini-Review
Mechanisms of castration resistant prostate cancer formation and progression through neuroendocrine differentiation
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1 Department of Urology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, 233020 Bengbu, Anhui, China
*Correspondence: (Xuezhen Yang)
J. Mens. Health 2021, 17(4), 17–21;
Submitted: 2 March 2021 | Accepted: 22 March 2021 | Published: 30 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer)
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

Normal prostate tissues consist mainly of epithelial cells, including secretory epithelial cells, basal cells, and neuroendocrine cells, and of mesenchymal cells, including smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. The mechanisms leading to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are complex and diverse, but most involve neuroendocrine differentiation. In fact, during the development of prostate cancer, some of the tumor cells transform into neuroendocrine-like cells. This transition is a main underlying mechanism of CRPC formation.

Prostate cancer
Neuroendocrine differentiation
Castration resistance prostate cancer
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