IMR Press / JOMH / Volume 17 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.036
Open Access Original Research
The effects of different types of warm-up exercises on golf performance
Show Less
1 Department of Health and Exercise Science, Korea National Sport University, 05541 Seoul, Republic of Korea
2 Department of Health and Rehabilitation, Osan University, 18119 Osan, Gyunggido, Republic of Korea
3 Department of Sports Rehabilitation, Korea Nazarene University, 31172 Cheonan, Chungnam, Republic of Korea
*Correspondence: (Jin Ho Yoon)
J. Mens. Health 2021, 17(3), 132–138;
Submitted: 23 January 2021 | Accepted: 2 March 2021 | Published: 8 July 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

Background and objective: Most studies of golf warm-up exercises have focused on the differences between static and dynamic stretching, while relatively few have compared them to post-activation potentiation (PAP) warm-up exercises. The current study aimed to verify the effects of different types of warm-up exercises on golf performance, with the goal of identifying an optimal strategy.

Methods: A total of 30 elite golf players in their 20s and 30s were randomly assigned to three different groups of 10 participants each: the dynamic warm-up (DWU) group, the PAP group, and the swing warm-up (SWU) group. Driving distance, six-iron carry, club head speed, ball speed, smash factor, and accuracy were measured before and after each warm-up exercise.

Results: Driving distance increased by 2.65% in the DWU group (P < 0.001) and 2.21% in the PAP group (P < 0.01). Carry also significantly increased by 2.30% in the DWU group (P < 0.01) and 2.10% in the PAP group (P < 0.01). The PAP group exhibited a six-iron carry increase of 3.35% (P < 0.001) and a ball speed increase of 1.86% (P < 0.05). In terms of accuracy, the rate of errors decreased by 47.49% in the DWU group (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: Among the golf-specific warm-up exercises investigated, DWU was identified as the most efficient exercise for improving total distance and accuracy. Such improvements can be attributed to increased mobility, as well as enhancements in swing size and the efficiency of the neuromuscular system. Thus, our results suggest that golf players should perform DWU exercises to improve their golf performance.

Golf-specific warm-up
Post-activation potentiation
Drive performance
Iron performance
Fig. 1.
Back to top