IMR Press / JOMH / Volume 17 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.031
Open Access Original Research
Unintentional weight loss as a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in older Korean men
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1 College of Sport Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea
*Correspondence: (Hyunsik Kang)
J. Mens. Health 2021, 17(3), 96–103;
Submitted: 31 January 2021 | Accepted: 3 March 2021 | Published: 8 July 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

Background and objective: Little is known regarding the prognostic role of unintentional weight loss (UWL) in mortality risk among older Korean men. This study examined the associations of UWL and unhealthy behaviors with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Korean men aged 60 years and older.

Material and Methods: Data (n = 2,309) obtained from the Korean longitudinal study of aging were analyzed. Exposures were UWL, smoking, alcohol abuse, underweight/obesity, and physical inactivity. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and CVD mortality. Covariates included parameters of sociodemographics and health conditions.

Results: Individuals with three or more risk factors had significantly higher risks of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.536, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0842.175, P = 0.016) and CVD mortality (HR = 2.925, 95% CI = 1.3866.174, P = 0.005) even after adjustments for parameters of sociodemographics, health conditions, and UWL compared to individuals with zero risk factors (HR = 1). Additionally, individuals with UWL had a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.307, 95% CI = 1.0521.623, P = 0.016) even after adjustments for the covariates and lifestyle risk factors compared to individuals with normal weight (HR = 1).

Conclusion: The current findings show that exposure to three or more lifestyle risk factors is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and CVD mortality, and UWL was a predictor of all-cause mortality in older Korean men.

Premature death
Behavioral risk factors
Unintentional weight loss
Fig. 1.
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