IMR Press / JOMH / Volume 17 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.029
Open Access Review
A comprehensive mechanistic basis of prostate cancer advancement & its personalized implementation-bridging the gap: present state and future prospect
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1 Department of Biotechnology, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati, 731235 Santiniketan, India
2 Department of Information Scientist, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology, Haringhata, 741249 Simhat, India
3 Computer Education Training Program, NICS Computer, 700032 Kolkata, India
4 Department of Urology, S.V.S Marwari Hospital, 700014 Kolkata, India
5 Department of Urology, AMRI Hospitals-Salt Lake, Salt Lake City, 700098 Kolkata, India
6 Department of Oncology, S.V.S Marwari Hospital, 700014 Kolkata, India
7 Department of Zoology, City College, 700009 Kolkata, India
8 Department of Urology & Oncology, Rabindranath Tagore International Institute of Cardiac Sciences, 700099 Kolkata, India
9 Department of Urology, Nil Ratan Sircar Medical College & Hospital, 700014 Kolkata, India
10 Department of Pharmacology, Medical College, 700073 Kolkata, India
11 Department of Radiotherapy, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, 700020 Kolkata, India
12 Department of Urology, North City Hospital, 700054 Kolkata, India
13 Department of Radiotherapy, Medical College, 700073 Kolkata, India
14 Department of Oncogene Regulation, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 700026 Kolkata, India
15 Department of Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, 700073 Kolkata, India
16 Department of Information Technology, Jadavpur University, 700098 Kolkata, India
17 Department of Pathology, Saroj Gupta Cancer Centre & Research Institute, 700063 Kolkata, India
18 Department of Endocrinology, Medical College, 700073 Kolkata, India
19 Department of Zoology, Vidyasagar College for Women, 700006 Kolkata, India
20 Machine Intelligence Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 700108 Kolkata, India
21 Department of Pharmacology, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, 700020 Kolkata, India
22 Department of Zoology, Surendranath College, 700009 Kolkata, India
23 Department of Computer Science, St. Xavier’s College, 700016 Kolkata, India
24 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, 700032 Kolkata, India
*Correspondence: ddbmbg@gmail.com (Dipamoy Datta)
J. Mens. Health 2021, 17(3), 18–35; https://doi.org/10.31083/jomh.2021.029
Submitted: 7 January 2021 | Accepted: 6 February 2021 | Published: 8 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapy and prognosis of metastatic prostate cancer)
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Abstract

Despite significant achievements in prostate cancer mechanistic understanding and its targeted therapies, currently there exists several major challenges that mainly arises during the therapy of advanced prostate cancer. Present prostate cancer precision medicine strategy principally suffers from several practical concerns, particularly in point of therapeutic resistance, tumor heterogeneity, complex clinical & pathological behavior and an extensive genomic perturbation landscape.

Prostate Cancer Systems-Medicine Initiative is a global trans-disciplinary movement taken from corresponding scientific domains to critically determine the nature of this major existing challenges and its corresponding most possible solutions by systematically accumulating the present existing knowledge. Basically, it explains the importance of broad spectrum cancer hallmark based integrative approaches for development of combination therapy associated strategic measures for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. The major findings of this initiative can be summarized by identification of 136 therapeutic resistance mediators, 103 prostate cancer driver oncogenes and 8 progression pathways along with 5 terrain factors which centrally drives the basic events in prostate cancer pathogenesis, its further metastatic propagation and ultimate therapeutic resistance. In addition, it also attempts to summarize the critical features and basic challenging aspects of current therapeutic options.

Keywords
Precision medicine
Therapy resistance
Cancer hallmarks
Terrain factors
Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)
Bone metastasis
Androgen receptor (AR)
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