IMR Press / JOMH / Volume 16 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/jomh.v16i3.285

Journal of Men’s Health (JOMH) is published by IMR Press from Volume 17 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Dougmar Publishing Group.

Original Research


Show Less
1 Department of Counseling Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University–San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA
2 Department of Prescription and Rehabilitation of Exercise, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea
3 Department of Icheon Training Center, Korea Paralympic Committee, Icheon, Republic of Korea

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

J. Mens. Health 2020, 16(3), 98–108;
Submitted: 22 June 2020 | Accepted: 31 August 2020 | Published: 17 September 2020

Background and objective

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are caused by factors such as aging, smoking, high body mass index (BMI), muscle loss, repetition of specific movements, and physical activity of intense muscle demands. MSDs cause pain, decrease the range of motion of joints, reduce proprioception sensory function, and reduce posture maintenance. This study aims to present basic data on prescription of exercise for musculo-skeletal movements in elderly people by evaluating the dynamic balance ability according to the presence of MSDs and the body regions affected by MSDs, and verifying the effects of MSD pain on the dynamic balance ability.

Material and methods

This study examined and identified differences according to the presence MSDs (Disorders, n = 51, age = 67.35 ± 2.62 years; Control, n = 15, age = 66.33 ± 3.10 years) and MSDs of body regions (shoulder, n = 14, age = 66.14 ± 1.95 years; lower back, n = 17, age = 67.82 ± 1.77 years; and knee, n = 20, age = 67.80 ± 2.36 years) in 66 elderly males. The causal relationship between MSD pain and dynamic balance ability was analyzed. The dynamic balance ability was measured using S3-Check (Multi-Functional Training, MFT S3; GmbH, Germany) where the subject takes off his shoes and positions on a 530-mm diameter round platform that moves in the axial direction (left-right or front-back) in the measuring range of +20° to –20° tilt angle.


The postural stability level was lower in the MSD group than in the group without MSD (left-right, P < 0.001; front-back, P < 0.001). The group with MSDs in the knee and the lower back showed lower results in the left-right and front-back stability index than the group without MSDs. Also, the knee and lower back MSD group showed lower scores in the front-back stability index than the shoulder MSD group. The level of sensory-motor function was lower in the MSD group than in the group without MSD (left-right, P < 0.001; front-back, P < 0.01). The MSD pain showed significantly positive standardized coefficients in the order of sensorimotor index (front-back, β = 0.404, P < 0.01; left-right, β = 0.397, P < 0.01) and stability index (front-back, β = 0.382, P < 0.01; left-right, β = 0.311, P < 0.01). As the degree of MSD pain increased, the postural stability level and sensory-motor function decreased.


We verified that the MSDs of body regions (knee and lower back) and pain level in the elderly are important factors in the decrease of dynamic balance ability.

dynamic balance ability
musculoskeletal disorders
pain level
Back to top