IMR Press / JIN / Volume 20 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin2003058
Open Access Original Research
Selective executive impairments as neuroimmunological manifestations of the human immunodeficiency virus
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1 Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2 2nd Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54636 Thessaloniki, Greece
3 Department of Early Years Learning and Care, School of Social Sciences, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
*Correspondence: (Eleni Konstantinopoulou)
These authors contributed equally.
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2021, 20(3), 541–549;
Submitted: 16 April 2021 | Revised: 9 July 2021 | Accepted: 16 July 2021 | Published: 30 September 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

Executive processes that predominantly effect people living with human immunodeficiency virus remain to be understood. In the present case-control study, components summarizing executive functions were empirically determined to clarify the nature of executive difficulties observed in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus. One hundred and five seropositive and 62 seronegative healthy adults without comorbidities underwent a comprehensive executive function assessment. Test data were reduced via principal components analysis and component scores were used to investigate whether seropositive adults exhibit selective difficulties in specific executive processes. A three-component solution was found, consisting of updating, inhibition and set-shifting. Group differences between seropositive and seronegative participants were observed only in the updating component. In the present exploratory analyses, significant findings emerged that suggest a selective executive impairment associated with the updating/working memory process in young to middle adulthood seropositive individuals without comorbidities.

Executive functions
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder
Principal components analysis
Fig. 1.
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