IMR Press / JIN / Volume 19 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin.2020.04.393
Open Access Perspective
From quantum chemistry to quantum biology: a path toward consciousness
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1 Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 1Z2, Alberta, Canada
2 Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2E9, Alberta, Canada
3 DIMEAS, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Torino, TO, Italy
*Correspondence: (Jack A. Tuszynski)
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2020, 19(4), 687–700;
Submitted: 25 November 2020 | Revised: 30 November 2020 | Accepted: 7 December 2020 | Published: 30 December 2020
Copyright: © 2020 Tuszynski Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

This paper presents a historical overview of quantum physics methodology’s development and application to various science fields beyond physics, especially biology and consciousness. Following a successful interpretation of several early 20 t h century experiments, quantum physics gradually provided a conceptual framework for molecular bonds via quantum chemistry. In recent years individual biological phenomena such as photosynthesis and bird navigation have been experimentally and theoretically analyzed using quantum methods, building conceptual foundations for quantum physics’ entry into biology. Quantum concepts have also been recently employed to explain physiology’s allometric scaling laws by introducing quantum metabolism theory. In the second part of this work, we discuss how quantum physics may also be pivotal to our understanding of consciousness, which has been touted by some researchers as the last frontier of modern science. Others believe that consciousness does not belong within the realm of science at all. Several hypotheses, especially the Orch OR theory, have been suggested over the past two decades to introduce a scientific basis to consciousness theory. We discuss the merits and potential extensions of these approaches.

Quantum physics
quantum biology
quantum metabolism
Fig. 1.
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