Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a devastating condition, often leading to a debilitating outcome. Delayed ischemic neurological deficits are considered the feared sequelae. Proteomics is a large-scale study of proteins incorporating structural and functional properties in complex biological fluids. Analysis of proteomes has led to identifying relevant complex proteins related to specific pathophysiological processes reflecting the severity and extent of diseases. Proteomics has evolved in the past few years; more biomarkers are deemed clinically relevant to diagnose, monitor, and define prognosis in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Despite the absence of candidate biomarkers in the clinical routine, many have shown promising results. The complexity of proteins implicated in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage rendered these biomarkers’ clinical use paved with various pitfalls and technical difficulties, especially when data about the perfect timing and values are lacking. We review the latest literature concerning serum proteomics and their clinical utility regarding the prediction of cerebral vasospasm and other complications of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well as the clinical outcome. Future prospective studies will allow changing the disease’s course, label patients according to their prognosis to provide earlier and better management and improve outcomes.