IMR Press / JIN / Volume 19 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin.2020.03.25
Open Access Original Research
Early tracheostomy is associated with better prognosis in patients with brainstem hemorrhage
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1 Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of JiNan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510632, P. R. China
*Correspondence: (Xiang-Yu Wang)
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2020, 19(3), 437–442;
Submitted: 3 February 2020 | Revised: 1 April 2020 | Accepted: 14 April 2020 | Published: 30 September 2020
Copyright: © 2020 Ding et al. Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (

Brainstem hemorrhage is presumed to be invariably associated with a poor prognosis in people with spontaneous hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage. The optimal timing of tracheostomy placement in brainstem hemorrhage patients, who generally require endotracheal intubation for airway protection, remains uncertain. Our research aim was to analyze the impact of early tracheostomy versus late tracheostomy on brainstem hemorrhage patients related outcomes and prognostic factors at 30 days. We identified early tracheostomy and how it could benefit the patients with brainstem hemorrhage and ameliorate the predictors of functional recovery at 30 days. Data on 136 patients with brainstem hemorrhage and Glasgow Coma Scale score 8, were retrospectively collected from 2012 to 2019. Patients were divided into the early tracheostomy group and the late tracheostomy group. Patients in the early tracheostomy group had a significantly lower neurosurgical intensive care unit stay (both overall and survival) compared with the late tracheostomy group (15.6 days vs. 19.0 days, P = 0.041, overall and 14.5 vs. 19.5 days, P = 0.023, survival). Also, the good outcomes (modified Rankin Score 3) were higher in the early tracheostomy group (P = 0.036). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that less hemorrhagic volume, high Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission, young age, and early tracheostomy were significantly associated with a better 30-day functional outcome. In conclusion, an early tracheostomy in patients with brainstem hemorrhage can reduce neurosurgical intensive care unit stay, and in addition to improvements in prognosis at 30 days.

Brainstem hemorrhage
statistical analysis
Glasgow coma scale
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