There is a need to investigate the role of nuclear factor kappa B in the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the epileptic rat brain and cultured hippocampal neurons. Immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of nuclear factor kappa B and cyclooxygenase-2. In cultured hippocampal neurons and rat brain: the control group compared with the normal group, nuclear factor kappa B expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, the piriform cortex brain regions were significantly increased (P < 0.01). This is accompanied by a significant increase in cyclooxygenase-2 protein and mRNA expressions in the hippocampus (P < 0.01). In the experimental group compared to the control group, the nuclear factor-kappa B expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, piriform cortex, and other brain regions was significantly lower (P < 0.01), with the accompanying decrease in cyclooxygenase-2 protein and mRNA expression (P < 0.01) in the hippocampus. In conclusion, κB-decoy can inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activation in epileptic rat brain and cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression.