The incidence of chronic alcoholism leading to central and peripheral nervous system damage has been increasing year-to-year. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of aminooxyacetic acid on hippocampus mitochondria in rats with chronic alcoholism and analyze learning and memory-related genes. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Except for the control group, each group was fed with the water containing (v/v) 6% alcohol for 28 days. After 14 days, rats in the treatment group were intraperitoneally injected daily for 14 days with aminooxyacetic acid. High throughput sequencing was combined and tested for learning and memory abilities, Hydrogen sulfide content, catalase activity in mitochondria, and the expression of F-actin in the hippocampus of the rats in each group. Compared with the control group, the learning and memory abilities of rats with chronic alcoholism were significantly impaired, mitochondria contained vacuoles, hydrogen sulfide increased, but catalase activity and F-actin content were significantly decreased, After treatment with aminooxyacetic acid, mitochondrial morphology improved, hydrogen sulfide content was decreased, while catalase activity and F-actin expression of in hippocampus were increased. This indicates that aminooxyacetic acid may improve learning and memory in rats with chronic alcoholism, and the mechanism is related to decreased hydrogen sulfide content and an increase of both catalase activity and F-actin level in the hippocampus, thereby reducing the damage of alcohol to mitochondria and neurons.