IMR Press / FBS / Volume 5 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/S362

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Protective cardiovascular and renal actions of vitamin D and estrogen
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1 Departments of Physiology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville TN 37208, USA
2 Obstetrics and Gynecology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
3 Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville TN 37208, USA
4 Center for Women’s Health Research, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
5 Department of Physiology and Biophysics, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
6 Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA, and Department of Research, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA
7 Talbert Medical Group/Health Care Partners, Long Beach CA 90802, USA
Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2013, 5(1), 134–148;
Published: 1 January 2013

Both basic science and clinical studies support the concept that vitamin D deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and renal diseases through its association with diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may provide a rationale for advocating adequate intake of vitamin D and calcium in all populations, thereby preventing many chronic diseases. This review explores the effect of vitamin D deficiency in the development of cardiovascular and renal diseases, and the role of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. In addition, it highlights the importance of vitamin D intake for the prevention of adverse long-term health consequences, and in ways to facilitate the management of cardiovascular disease. This is particularly true for African American and postmenopausal women, who are at added risk for cardiovascular disease. We suggest that the negative cardiovascular effects of low vitamin D in postmenopausal women could be improved by a combined treatment of vitamin D and sex steroids acting through endothelium-dependent and/or -independent mechanisms, resulting in the generation of nitric oxide and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP).

Vitamin D
Sex hormones
Health disparity
Nitric oxide
Heart disease
Renal disease
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