IMR Press / FBS / Volume 4 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/S316

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


A role for TLRs in Moraxella-superantigen induced polyclonal B cell activation

Show Less
1 Medical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine Malmo, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, SE-20502, Malmo, Sweden

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2012, 4(3), 1031–1043;
Published: 1 January 2012

A number of microorganisms are capable of binding immunoglobulins (Igs) in a manner, which excludes binding to conventional antigen binding sites. Interaction of such bacterial proteins with surface immunoglobulins leads to polyclonal activation of B-lymphocytes. A recent example is Moraxella catarrhalis that binds to B lymphocytes in an IgD-dependent manner and induces proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes leading to the production of unspecific Igs. The activation is mediated by Moraxella IgD binding protein (MID), which specifically binds to both soluble IgD and the IgD B cell receptor (BCR). Besides cross-linking the BCR, whole Moraxella and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) engage Toll like receptors (TLRs) to further increase the response. TLR activation leads to initiation of signaling pathways, which evoke a proinflammatory response against the invading microbes. Polyclonal B cell activation has in general been implicated in various phenomenons that are detrimental for the host but beneficial for pathogens, for example, autoimmune manifestations and redirection of the immune system.

Back to top