IMR Press / FBS / Volume 3 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.2741/223

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


The importance of Ca2+/Zn2+ signaling S100 proteins and RAGE in translational medicine

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1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
2 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2011, 3(4), 1232–1262;
Published: 1 June 2011

The Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor involved in a large number of human disorders. Identified first as the receptor for the Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs), RAGE has emerged in recent years as a major receptor for many members of the S100 calcium and zinc binding protein family. The interaction with and the signaling triggered by several S100 proteins such as S100B and S100A12 have been studied in details and have shown concentration and cell type dependent signaling cascades. The S100 protein family consists of more than 20 members which present high amino-acid sequence and structural similarities. These small EF-hand calcium binding proteins interact with a large number of protein targets and are almost all been shown to be involved in cancer. In this review we discuss the recent knowledge about the role of S100 proteins and RAGE in human disorders.

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