IMR Press / FBS / Volume 3 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/205

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

New role of glutamate as an immunoregulator via glutamate receptors and transporters
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1 Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado
2 Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, 4-126A HRIF East, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1, Canada

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Guoyao Wu

Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2011, 3(3), 1007–1020;
Published: 1 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino acids in nutrition, health, and disease)

Accumulating evidence suggests that the amino acid glutamate (Glu) may play a role in mediating immune function. The demonstration of Glu receptors (GluR) and Glu transporters (GluT) on a variety of immune cells suggests that Glu has a functional role in immunoregulation well beyond its role as a neurotransmitter. The extracellular Glu concentration plays a key role in the regulation of GSH synthesis in immune cells via 2 key GluTs (i.e., Xc- and X-AG systems). Emerging evidence also suggests a role of Glu as signaling molecule in immune cells via ionotropic GluRs (iGluRs) and metabotropic GluRs (mGluRs). In vitro, extracellular Glu concentration has been shown to exert a dose-dependent regulation on lymphocyte activation/proliferation. Specifically, Given the exceedingly high intestinal Glu concentration, these finding are suggestive of a potential role for Glu in modulating immune function and promoting tolerance in the gut associated lymphoid tissues.

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