Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
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Academic Editor: Abel Viejo-Borbolla
Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively) are two important human pathogens that belong to the genus simplex within the subfamily alpha of the Herpesvirinae. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) constitute a family of conserved sensors that play a prominent role during the early anti-viral response, including that against herpesviruses. Although substantial progress has been made, central questions remain to be solved to figure out how TLRs modulate viral pathogenesis. The aim of the present report is to review the current knowledge about TLR recognition and signaling of herpesviruses, focusing on HSV infection. The relative contribution of the TLR-mediated immune responses to antiviral immunity versus viral pathogenesis will be discussed as well.