IMR Press / FBS / Volume 2 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/S85

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Biomarkers of glial cell proliferation and differentiation in culture
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1 Department of Chemical Sciences, sec Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Catania, viale A Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
2 Department of Experimental Medicine and Public Health, University of Camerino, via Madonna delle Carceri 9, 62032 Camerino, Macerata
3 Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Catania, viale A. Doria, 6, 95125 Catania, Italy

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Giovanni Li Volti

Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2010, 2(2), 558–570;
Published: 1 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemical markers in biological fluids)

The two major intermediate filament (IF) proteins of astrocytes are vimentin and GFAP. Early during development, radial glia and immature astrocytes express mainly vimentin. Towards the end of gestation, a switch occurs whereby vimentin is progressively replaced by GFAP in differentiated astroglial cells. The expression of vimentin and GFAP increased markedly after injury to CNS. GFAP has been widely recognized as an astrocyte differentiation marker, constituting the major IF protein of mature astrocyte. In our recent researches we investigated the interactions between growth factors and dexamethasone on cytoskeletal proteins GFAP and vimentin expression under different experimental conditions. In addition, nestin, a currently used marker of neural stem cells, is transiently co-expressed with GFAP during development and is induced in reactive astrocytes following brain injury. The role of S100B in astrocytes, neurons, and microglia is particularly studied in Alzhèimer's disease. In conclusion, such glial biomarkers will help us to understand the more general mechanisms involved in CNS development and can open new perspectives for the control of the neurologic diseases.

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