IMR Press / FBS / Volume 14 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbs1401003
Open Access Review
Macrophage and microglia polarization: focus on autophagy-dependent reprogramming
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1 Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194064 St. Petersburg, Russia
2 Institute of Experimental Medicine, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: (Irina I. Suvorova)
Academic Editor: William L. Stone
Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2022, 14(1), 3;
Submitted: 29 November 2021 | Revised: 26 December 2021 | Accepted: 11 January 2020 | Published: 20 January 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

The approach to the study of autophagy has been undergoing considerable change lately: from investigations of the protein components of autophagic machinery to its regulation at different molecular levels. Autophagy is being examinated not only as a separated degradative process per se in cells but as an executor mechanism of certain signaling pathways that converge on it, being activated under specific conditions. Additionally, autophagy is beginning to be observed as a key integral part of cellular reprogramming, the transition from one phenotypic state to another associated with rapid degradation of the previous proteostasis. Macrophages and microglia demonstrate a diversity of phenotypes reflecting their effective capability to phenotypic plasticity. Therefore, understanding the role of autophagy in macrophage and microglia functions needs to be addressed. In this review, we focus on autophagy as a fundamental intracellular process underlying macrophages and microglia polarization.

M1/M2 polarization
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