IMR Press / FBS / Volume 12 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/S537

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review
Inflammatory markers in cancer: Potential resources
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1 Corresponding Author, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mahavir Cancer Sansthan and Research Centre, Khagaul Road, Phulwarisharif, Patna 801505, Bihar, India
2 Department of Radiation Oncology, Mahavir Cancer Sansthan and Research Centre, Khagaul Road, Phulwarisharif, Patna 801505, Bihar, India
Send correspondence to: Richa Chauhan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mahavir Cancer Sansthan and Research Centre, Khagaul Road, Phulwarisharif, Patna 801505, Bihar, India. Tel: 8002226696, Fax: +91-612-2253957, E-mail: chauhan_richa@outlook.com
Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2020, 12(1), 1–24; https://doi.org/10.2741/S537
Published: 1 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elucidation of exosomes role in metastasis)
Abstract

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and a major burden on developing and less developed countries of the world with limited resources for prevention and effective treatment of cancer. Although cancer is multifactorial in origin, various epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that chronic inflammation has an important role in all stages of cancer, from initiation to progression and even survival of the patient. Inflammatory products like cytokines, chemokines, leucocytes, prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, metalloproteinase induce genetic and epigenetic changes in normal cells damaging its DNA, inhibiting its repair, altering transcription factors, preventing apoptosis, and stimulating angiogenesis, and thus resulting in carcinogenesis. Thus, these inflammatory mediators have a potential role to become cancer biomarkers for all stages of cancer as many of them can be measured in a cost-effective manner. However, large scale prospective trials are required to validate these potential cancer biomarkers. Nonetheless, a transition from potential to practical utilization of these markers will be an effective tool for the amelioration of cancer burden and mortality in a resource limited setting.

Keywords
Cancer
Inflammation
Biomarker
Risk Factor
Prognosis
Inflammatory Mediators
Review
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