Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Assessment of different pretreatment technologies for efficient bioconversion of lignocellulose to ethanol
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The future supply of energy to meet growing energy demand of rapidly exapanding populations is based on wide energy resources, particularly the renewable ones. Among all resources, lignocellulosic biomasses such as agriculture, forest, and agro-industrial residues are the most abundant and easily available bioresource for biorefineries to provide fuels, chemicals, and materials. However, pretreatment of biomass is required to overcome the physical and chemical barriers that exist in the lignin–carbohydrate composite and pretreatment facilitate the entry of biocatalysts for the conversion of biomass into fermentable sugars and other by-products. Therefore, pretreatment of the biomass is necessary prerequisite for efficient hydrolysis of lignocelluloses into different type of fermentable sugars. The physiochemical, biochemical and biological pretreatment methods are considered as most promising technologies for the biomass hydrolysis and are discussed in this review article. We also discussed the recent advancements and modern trends in pretreatment methods of lignocelluloses conversion into ethanol with special focus on fermentation methods.