IMR Press / FBS / Volume 10 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/S501

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Divergent impact of gender in advancement of liver injuries, diseases, and carcinogenesis

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1 Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Amity Institute of Molecular Medicine and Stem Cell Research, AUUP, Noida, India
3 Department of Medical Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2018, 10(1), 65–100;
Published: 1 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive biomedicine: from basics to translational outcome)

Several investigations have revealed that liver diseases exhibit gender biases, but identifying the root causes of such biases has been challenging. Evidence of gender differences in liver function is present from the early stage of embryonic development. The differences in access to care and treatment as well as diagnostic deliberation may affect gender-specific differences in liver disease progression. Apart from the pathogenesis, xenobiotic metabolism, immune responses, gene expressions, mitochondrial function, lipid composition, and enzyme activities also differ in this sexually dimorphic organ. Differences in a social environment and lifestyle of men and women may also be involved in the basic mechanisms underlying the sex-associated differences and protective or aggravating effects of sex hormones during viral infections, alcoholic and non-alcoholic chronic and/or acute mode of liver injuries, carcinogenesis, autoimmune responses, and liver transplantation outcome. We summarized here the recent findings regarding the influence of sex hormones on immune responses underlying the pathology of the liver diseases in humans and animal models.

Acute liver disease
Chronic liver diseases
Kupffer cells
Hepatic stellate cells
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