Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
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Academic Editor: Xiao-Feng Yang
A small number of upstream master genes in "higher hierarchy" controls the expression of a large number of downstream genes and integrates the signaling pathways underlying the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases with or without autoimmune inflammatory mechanisms. In this brief review, we organize our analysis of recent progress in characterization of forkhead (FOX) transcription factor family members in vascular pathology, diabetes and regulatory T cells into the following sections: (1) Overview of the FOX transcription factor superfamily; (2) Vascular pathology of mice deficient in FOX transcription factors; (3) Roles of FOX transcription factors in endothelial cell pathology; (4) Roles of FOX transcription factors in vascular smooth muscle cells; (5) Roles of FOX transcription factors in the pathogenesis of diabetes; and (6) Immune system phenotypes of mice deficient in FOX transcription factors. Advances in these areas suggest that the FOX transcription factor family plays important roles in vascular development and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory cardiovascular diseases.