Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Academic Editor: James Krueger
Waking neurobehavioural or cognitive functioning is largely dependent on two mechanisms both in synchrony and in opposition to each other: the sleep homeostatic and circadian systems. The influences of these systems are particularly evident during periods of sustained wakefulness or sleep deprivation. Although the effects of these two systems on neurobehavioural functioning during periods of extended wakefulness have been demonstrated experimentally, there does not exist an adequate theory to describe the underlying brain mechanisms responsible for these neurobehavioural deficits. Much research has in fact concentrated not on understanding the nature of these deficits, but rather in counteracting them, via the use of countermeasures, such as naps and wake promoting compounds.