IMR Press / FBL / Volume 8 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.2741/1163

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Chronic rejection: failure of immune regulation
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1 Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
2 Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri

Academic Editor: Rakesh Sindhi

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2003, 8(6), 838–844;
Published: 1 September 2003
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunemodulation and immunosuppressants)

Current strategies for immunosuppression following organ transplantation focus on the prevention of acute rejection. As new generations of immunosuppressants have been developed, acute rejection rates have diminished markedly. The new challenge, then, is to prevent the devastating complications of chronic rejection, which have remained largely unchanged over the decades. The process of chronic rejection is a complex one, and it is likely that most, if not all, components of the immune system play some role in the long-term, smoldering failure of organs following transplantation. Through a better understanding of their individual contributions as well as interactions, new strategies may be developed to overcome this problem. We present here an overview of the major immune components thought to be involved in chronic rejection.

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