Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Academic Editor: Di Chen
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play pleiotropic roles during development and after birth in many different organisms. BMPs are members of TGF-beta superfamily. There are more than 20 members with three type II receptors and three type I receptors. Genetic approaches using the mouse as a model system revealed many of the functions of BMPs. Particularly, results obtained through loss-of-function analyses of BMP ligands and their receptors are reviewed in this article.