Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Strain induced osteogenesis of the craniofacial suture upon controlled delivery of low-frequency cyclic forces
Static forces have been used for more than a century to modulate osteogenesis of craniofacial sutures in not only laboratory research, but also clinical practice. Whether cyclic forces more effectively stimulate sutural osteogenesis than static forces is unknown. Here, the premaxillomaxillary sutures of growing rabbits received in vivo exogenous static forces with peak magnitude of 2 Newtons, or cyclic forces also at 2 Newtons but with frequencies of 0.2 Hz and 1 Hz. The static force and two cyclic forces did not evoke significant differences in the peak magnitude of static bone strain (506 µstrainn±182; mean±S.D.), 0.2-Hz cyclic strain (436 µstrain±191) or 1-Hz cyclic strain (461 µstrain±229). However, cyclic forces at 0.2 Hz delivered to the premaxillomaxillary suture for 10 min/d over 12 days (120 cyclic per day) induced significantly more craniofacial growth (p< 0.01), marked sutural separation, and islands of newly formed bone, in comparison with both sham controls and static force of matching peak magnitude. The bone strain threshold of approximately 500 µstrain for inducing sutural osteogenesis is lower than the minimum effective strain capable of inducing bone apposition in long bones. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that application of brief doses of cyclic forces induces sutural osteogenesis more effectively than static forces with matching peak magnitude.