Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Angiogenesis is required for the growth as well as expansion of a solid tumor. It has been reported that tumor angiogenesis may be triggered after an increase in the level of angiogenic factors and a concomitant decrease in the level of angiogenic inhibitors. Of all potential pro-angiogenic mediators of bladder cancer, VEGF and bFGF appear to be most relevant in terms of physiology. To date, it appears that the angiogenic factors and inhibitors may play an important role in the diagnosis and prognosis of bladder cancer.