IMR Press / FBL / Volume 7 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.2741/han

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Tumor markers for the early detection of bladder cancer
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1 Depratment of Urology , University of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California
2 Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California

Academic Editor: JianYu Rao

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2002, 7(5), 19–26;
Published: 1 January 2002
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor markers for bladder cancer early detection)

Several urine markers have been and are currently being investigated for the diagnosis and prognostication of bladder malignancies. While cystoscopy and urine cytology remain the gold standard in the detection of bladder cancer, cystoscopy is invasive and cytology yields low sensitivities in low-grade disease. The availability of a non-invasive, accurate, office-based test would be ideal. In this review, we discuss markers that are useful in the prevention and detection of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. In general, each of the markers has better sensitivities than cytology, but lower specificities. Furthermore, each of these markers must still be used in adjunct with cystoscopy.

Tumor Markers
Bladder Cancer
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