IMR Press / FBL / Volume 7 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.2741/niggli

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Calcium quarks
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1 Department of Physiology, University of Bern, Bühlplatz 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
Academic Editor:Hector Valdivia
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2002, 7(4), 1288–1297; https://doi.org/10.2741/niggli
Published: 1 May 2002
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The structure and function of calcium release channels)
Abstract

Elementary subcellular Ca2+ signals arising from the opening of single ion channels may offer the possibility to examine the stochastic behavior and the microscopic chemical reaction rates of these channel proteins in their natural environment. Such an analysis can yield detailed information about the molecular function that cannot be derived from recordings obtained from an ensemble of channels. In this review, we summarize experimental evidence suggesting that Ca2+ sparks, elementary Ca2+ signaling events of cardiac and skeletal muscle excitation contraction coupling, may be comprised of a number of smaller Ca2+ signaling events, the Ca2+ quarks.

Keywords
Cardiac Muscle
Calcium Signaling
Excitation-Contraction Coupling
Confocal Microscopy
Photolysis
Review
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