IMR Press / FBL / Volume 7 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.2741/A787

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Persistent infections and immunity in cystic fibrosis
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1 Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University, 1542 Spring Valley Drive, Huntington, WV 25704, USA
Academic Editor:Patrick Lai
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2002, 7(4), 442–457; https://doi.org/10.2741/A787
Published: 1 February 2002
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Persistent infection and immunity)
Abstract

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive lethal disease in the Caucasian population. Chronic respiratory infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation and progressive lung damage are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in CF. Two persistent infection phenotypes expressed by this bacterium are biofilm and mucoidy. Biofilm, also called the microcolony mode of growth is the surface-associated adherent bacterial community, while mucoidy refers to a phenotype conducive to copious amounts of mucoid exopolysaccharide (MEP)/alginate that provides a matrix for mature biofilms conferring resistance to host defenses and antibiotics. Recent completion of the whole genomic sequence of the standard reference strain P. aeruginosa PAO1 has led to discoveries that many clinical isolates of this species possess unique genomic sequences (genomic islands) due to horizontal gene transfer. We propose this type of genetic exchange may play an important role in causing intrinsic genomic diversity of this organism. Therefore, the diversity, as revealed through profiles of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), may be linked to an array of novel and unexplored pathogenic mechanisms in P. aeruginosa. CF mouse models, while displaying many clinical similarities to human CF, have yet to demonstrate a chronic pulmonary disease phenotype. This review is intended to provide an overview of P. aeruginosa persistent infection phenotypes (biofilm and mucoidy) and an aerosol infection mouse model for CF. Genomic diversity of P. aeruginosa and its implications in the pathogenesis in CF will also be discussed.

Keywords
Cystic Fibrosis
Chronic Infections
Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Biofilm
Mucoidy
PFGE
Genomic Diversity
Genomic Island
Aerosol Infection
Mouse Model
Review
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